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The period comprises two phases: the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th [15] and 13th Dynasties centered on el-Lisht. The unified kingdom was previously considered to comprise the 11th and 12th Dynasties, but historians now at least partially consider the 13th Dynasty to belong to the Middle Kingdom. During the Second Intermediate Period , [16] Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

It is best known for the Hyksos , whose reign comprised the 15th and 16th dynasties. The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt during the 11th Dynasty, began their climb to power in the 13th Dynasty, and emerged from the Second Intermediate Period in control of Avaris and the Delta. By the 15th Dynasty, they ruled lower Egypt, and they were expelled at the end of the 17th Dynasty.

It was Egypt's most prosperous time and marked the peak of Egypt's power. The later New Kingdom, i. Elam was a pre-Iranic ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Iranic Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it. This corresponds to level IV at Namazga-Tepe. Altyndepe was a major centre even then.

Pottery was wheel-turned. Grapes were grown. The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c. The Kulli culture , [19] [20] similar to those of the Indus Valley Civilisation , was located in southern Balochistan Gedrosia c. Agriculture was the economical base of this people. At several places dams were found, providing evidence for a highly developed water management system. Konar Sandal is associated with the hypothesized " Jiroft culture ", a 3rd-millennium-BC culture postulated on the basis of a collection of artifacts confiscated in Old Syrian; corresponding to the Middle Bronze.

Middle Syrian; corresponding to the Late Bronze. The term Neo-Syria is used to designate the early Iron Age. The old Syrian period was dominated by the Eblaite first kingdom , Nagar and the Mariote second kingdom. The Akkadian conquered large areas of the Levant and were followed by the Amorite kingdoms , c. The earliest known Ugarit contact with Egypt and the first exact dating of Ugaritic civilization comes from a carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I, — BC.

However, it is unclear at what time these monuments got to Ugarit.

In the Amarna letters , messages from Ugarit c. The Mitanni was a loosely organized state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from c. Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class that governed a predominantly Hurrian population, Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Kassite Babylon created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. At its beginning, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite empire, Mitanni and Egypt made an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination.

At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, it had outposts centered on its capital, Washukanni , which archaeologists have located on the headwaters of the Khabur River. Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite, and later Assyrian attacks, and was reduced to a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. The Israelites were an ancient Semitic-speaking people of the Ancient Near East who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods 15th to 6th centuries BC , [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.

The name "Israel" first appears c. Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia, where they intermingled with the native Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian population. The Aramaeans never had a unified empire; they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East. After the Bronze Age collapse, their political influence was confined to a number of Syro-Hittite states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC.

Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. The Akkadian Empire — BC became the dominant power in the region, and after its fall the Sumerians enjoyed a renaissance with the Neo-Sumerian Empire.

Assyria was extant from as early as the 25th century BC, and became a regional power with the Old Assyrian Empire c. The earliest mention of Babylon then a small administrative town appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC. The Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC. Over years later, it briefly took over the other city-states and formed the short lived First Babylonian Empire during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period. Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia all used the written East Semitic Akkadian language for official use and as a spoken language.

By that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use in Assyria and Babylonia, and would remain so until the 1st century AD. The Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in later Assyrian and Babylonian culture, even though Babylonia unlike the more militarily powerful Assyria itself was founded by non-native Amorites and often ruled by other non-indigenous peoples, such as Kassites , Arameans and Chaldeans , as well as its Assyrian neighbours. Its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon.

In China, the earliest bronze artifacts have been found in the Majiayao culture site between and BC. The term "Bronze Age" has been transferred to the archaeology of China from that of Western Eurasia, and there is no consensus or universally used convention delimiting the "Bronze Age" in the context of Chinese prehistory. By convention, the "Early Bronze Age" in China is sometimes taken as equivalent to the " Shang dynasty " period of Chinese prehistory 16th to 11th centuries BC , [37] and the "Later Bronze Age" as equivalent to the " Zhou dynasty " period 11th to 3rd centuries BC, from the 5th century also dubbed " Iron Age " , although there is an argument to be made that the "Bronze Age" proper never ended in China, as there is no recognizable transition to an "Iron Age".

Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou Wade—Giles : Erh-li-t'ou period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty. The widespread use of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture dates to significantly later, probably due to Western influence. While there may be reason to believe that bronzework developed inside China separately from outside influence, [43] the discovery of Europoid mummies in Xinjiang suggests a possible route of transmission from the West beginning in the early second millennium BC.

A few human mummies alone cannot provide sufficient explanation of metallurgy transmission. Furthermore, the oldest bronze objects found in China so far were discovered at the Majiayao site in Gansu rather than Xinjiang [45]. While some direct information about the Shang dynasty comes from Shang-era inscriptions on bronze artifacts, most comes from oracle bones — turtle shells, cattle scapulae, or other bones — which bear glyphs that form the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters.

Iron is found from the Zhou dynasty , but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this. White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty BC " and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period , or to BC [ sic?

Iranian Genetics Mapped Part II: A Look at BMAC and Bronze Age Iran

The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or "ritual bronzes" , which are more elaborate versions in precious materials of everyday vessels, as well as tools and weapons. Examples are the numerous large sacrificial tripods known as dings in Chinese; there are many other distinct shapes. Surviving identified Chinese ritual bronzes tend to be highly decorated, often with the taotie motif, which involves highly stylized animal faces.

Enrico Ascalone - Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

These appear in three main motif types: those of demons, of symbolic animals, and of abstract symbols. The bronzes of the Western Zhou dynasty document large portions of history not found in the extant texts that were often composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class. Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts. The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is around — BC.

The Mumun pottery period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially — BC. The Mumun period is known for the origins of intensive agriculture and complex societies in both the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago. The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production c.

BC after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula c. The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centres such as the Igeum-dong site. Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until Bronze and iron smelting techniques spread to the Japanese archipelago through contact with other ancient East Asian civilizations, particularly immigration and trade from the Korean peninsula and ancient Mainland China.

Iron was mainly used for agricultural and other tools, whereas ritual and ceremonial artifacts were mainly made of bronze. Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans , developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The Late Harappan culture, which dates from — BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.

It has been claimed that a 6, year old copper amulet manufactured in Mehrgarh in the shape of wheel spoke is the earliest example of lost wax casting in the world. Dating is still currently broad — BC. Ban Chiang, however, is the most thoroughly documented site while having the clearest evidence of metallurgy when it comes to Southeast Asia. With a rough date range of late 3rd millennium BC to the first millennium AD, this site alone has various artifacts such as burial pottery dating from — BC , fragments of Bronze, copper-base bangles, and much more.

What's interesting about this site, however, isn't just the old age of the artifacts but the fact that this technology suggested on-site casting from the very beginning. The on-site casting supports the theory that Bronze was first introduced in Southeast Asia as fully developed which therefore shows that Bronze was actually innovated from a different country. These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam. Archaeological research in Northern Vietnam indicates an increase in rates of infectious disease following the advent of metallurgy; skeletal fragments in sites dating to the early and mid-Bronze Age evidence a greater proportion of lesions than in sites of earlier periods.

The other one is decreased levels of immunocompetence in the Metal age due to changes in diet caused by agriculture. The last is that there may have been an emergence of infectious disease in the Da But period that evolved into a more virulent form in the metal period.

The production of complex tin bronzes lasted for c. The authors reported that evidence for the production of such complex bronzes disappears at the end of the 5th millennium coinciding with the "collapse of large cultural complexes in north-eastern Bulgaria and Thracein the late fifth millennium BC".

Tin bronzes using cassiterite tin would be reintroduced to the area again some years later. The Aegean Bronze Age began around BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus , where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade.

Isotopic analysis of tin in some Mediterranean bronze artifacts suggests that they may have originated from Great Britain. Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded except perhaps by Polynesian sailors until when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude.


The Minoan civilization based in Knossos on the island of Crete appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade. Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age. Ancient empires valued luxury goods in contrast to staple foods , leading to famine. Bronze Age collapse theories have described aspects of the end of the Age in this region. At the end of the Bronze Age in the Aegean region, the Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy. This would indicate that the trade network may have failed, preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition.

It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea , also suddenly lost much of its population, and thus probably some capacity to cultivate crops. The Aegean Collapse has been attributed to the exhaustion of the Cypriot forests causing the end of the bronze trade. The Aegean Collapse has also been attributed to the fact that as iron tools became more common, the main justification for the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it did formerly.

Speculation include a tsunami from Thera more commonly known today as Santorini destroyed Cretan cities. If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC as most chronologists now think then its immediate effects belong to the Middle to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age; but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall.

An Umm an‐Nar‐type compartmented soft‐stone vessel from Gonur Depe, Turkmenistan

One such theory highlights the role of Cretan expertise in administering the empire, post-Thera. If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, then the Mycenaeans may have made political and commercial mistakes in administering the Cretan empire. Archaeological findings, including some on the island of Thera, suggest that the centre of Minoan Civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on Thera rather than on Crete.

A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to human predators. Indeed, the Santorini Eruption is usually dated to c. Thus, the later Mycenaean assaults on Crete c. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age — BC Tumulus culture , which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli barrows.

Important sites include:. The Apennine culture also called Italian Bronze Age is a technology complex of central and southern Italy spanning the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age proper. The Camuni were an ancient people of uncertain origin according to Pliny the Elder , they were Euganei ; according to Strabo , they were Rhaetians who lived in Val Camonica — in what is now northern Lombardy — during the Iron Age , although human groups of hunters, shepherds and farmers are known to have lived in the area since the Neolithic.

They take their name from the characteristic nuragic towers, which evolved from the pre-existing megalithic culture, which built dolmens and menhirs. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Their effective use is still debated: some scholars considered them as monumental tombs, others as Houses of the Giants , other as fortresses, ovens for metal fusion, prisons or, finally, temples for a solar cult. From this region they reached Malta island and other countries of Mediterranean basin. The Terramare was an early Indo-European civilization in the area of what is now Pianura Padana northern Italy before the arrival of the Celts , and in other parts of Europe.

They lived in square villages of wooden stilt houses. These villages were built on land, but generally near a stream, with roads that crossed each other at right angles. The whole complex denoted the nature of a fortified settlement. Terramare were widespread in the Pianura Padana specially along the Panaro river, between Modena and Bologna and in the rest of Europe.

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It lasted for more than a millennium, from the 15th century BC until the Roman conquest in the 3rd century BC. It takes its name from the fortified boroughs Castellieri , Friulian : cjastelir that characterized the culture. It takes its name from the township of Canegrate where, in the 20th century, some fifty tombs with ceramics and metal objects were found. The Canegrate culture migrated from the northwest part of the Alps and descended to Pianura Padana from the Swiss Alps passes and the Ticino.

The Golasecca culture developed starting from the late Bronze Age in the Po plain. It takes its name from Golasecca, a locality next to the Ticino where, in the early 19th century, abbot Giovanni Battista Giani excavated its first findings some fifty tombs with ceramics and metal objects. Remains of the Golasecca culture span an area of c. It is marked by economic and cultural exchange. Commercial contacts extend to Denmark and the Mediterranean. The Atlantic Bronze Age was defined by a number of distinct regional centres of metal production, unified by a regular maritime exchange of some of their products.

Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the migrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. Another example site is Must Farm, near Whittlesey, which has recently been host to the most complete Bronze Age wheel ever to be found. The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people, and cultural change was significant. Integration is thought to have been peaceful, as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers.

The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Britain at this time. Additionally, the climate was deteriorating; where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands and appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances. Devon and Cornwall were major sources of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales.

Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent. The burial of the dead which, until this period, had usually been communal became more individual. For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow housed the dead, Early Bronze Age people buried their dead in individual barrows also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli , or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. The greatest quantities of bronze objects in England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire , where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham more than pieces.

One copper mine at Great Orme in North Wales, extended to a depth of 70 meters. The identifiable sherds from over mould fragments included a perfect fit of the hilt of a sword in the Wilburton style held in Somerset County Museum. The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around BC, when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork. The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes , daggers , halberds and awls in copper.

Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials. One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe. There are five main types of flat axes: Lough Ravel c. Succeeding the Late Neolithic culture, its ethnic and linguistic affinities are unknown in the absence of written sources.

It is followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Even though Northern European Bronze Age cultures were relatively late, and came into existence via trade, sites present rich and well-preserved objects made of wool, wood and imported Central European bronze and gold. Many rock carvings depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships suggest that shipping played an important role. Thousands of rock carvings depict ships, most probably representing sewn plank built canoes for warfare, fishing and trade.

These may have a history as far back as the neolithic period and continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as shown by the Hjortspring boat. There are many mounds and rock carving sites from the period. Numerous artifacts of bronze and gold are found. No written language existed in the Nordic countries during the Bronze Age.

The rock carvings have been dated through comparison with depicted artifacts. Arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus have been dated around the 4th millennium BC. The Catacomb culture , c. It is a successor to the Yamnaya and the Poltavka culture. Iron and copper smelting appeared around the same time in most parts of Africa. Evidence for iron smelting appears earlier or at the same time as copper smelting in Nigeria c.

Sort order. Nov 20, Rama rated it really liked it Shelves: hinduism. There are several artifacts shown in this book with very intricate carvings and some them range from household items, figurines, jewelry, tools and inscriptions. The carvings in chlorite or stone steatite have some unique features and they were either discovered in monumental temples or pa Ancient artifacts of Central and South Asia This book evaluates the artistic elements in the archeological and ancient artifacts of Bronze Age discovered in Mesopotamia, Persia, Eastern Syria and Indus Valley.

The carvings in chlorite or stone steatite have some unique features and they were either discovered in monumental temples or palaces or in the graves of royal families. Some carry dedicatory inscriptions to royal or divine personages. These findings demonstrate significant interest in the field of art in ancient civilizations, which thrived in Indus Valley and across Eastern Persia, and Western Central Asia. The life in each of these regions had its own distinguishing features with its organization and material culture. The style and iconography are consistent with that time.

Despite their unique cultural identities, they also had a strong sense of trade and commerce. Minerals, alloys and agricultural products were bought and sold. Mesopotamia imported substantial amounts of stones and other precious metals such as gold, silver and copper from Iranian plateau and Indus Valley. It is a fascinating read and I recommend this book to those readers interested archeology, ancient artifacts and early civilizations of Central and South Asia.

Mar 09, Alastair Hudson rated it liked it Shelves: non-fiction. I suspect that a bit more is known about the provenance of these objects now. Part of the purpose of this text was to promote further study and collaboration in this area.

CN102407724B - 花泥在制作盆景中的应用及盆景的制作方法 - Google Patents

But that aside, this is a good review of some interesting items and the creative range of the objects collected. Beautiful pieces of work that tantalisingly leave so many questions as to the full meaning their iconography and use. What I found most interesting was the glimpse of an elaborate trade in raw 'Quite an old book now. What I found most interesting was the glimpse of an elaborate trade in raw materials and the settlement patterns and evolution of local society to be able to support the production of such sophisticated items.

Third Millennium BC. Knowing nothing about this period I'm now tempted to learn more. Dumitru Condrea rated it really liked it Nov 10, Gilbert rated it really liked it May 03, Lanny marked it as to-read May 04, Yasmin marked it as to-read Sep 18, Foxglove Zayuri marked it as to-read Oct 16, Maryam is currently reading it May 02, Maryam marked it as to-read Sep 09, Zakdoekjesfee added it May 09, Mauro added it Nov 19, Linus Vieira marked it as to-read Jan 25, Tavus marked it as to-read Nov 25, Steve marked it as to-read Feb 29, Anonymous added it Apr 27, Neske marked it as to-read Jul 28, Mary Davis added it Jul 05, Benjamin added it Aug 26, Paige marked it as to-read Nov 13,