Sign In. Access provided by: anon Sign Out. Active network vision and reality: lessons from a capsule-based system Abstract: Although active networks have generated much debate in the research community on the whole there has been little hard evidence to inform this debate.
The Management of Distributed Projects Across Cultures
This paper aims to redress the situation by reporting what we have learned by designing, implementing and using the ANTS active network toolkit over the past two years. At this early stage, active networks remain an open research area. If not, the corporate executives can and should revise the themes intended to create corporate synergy. A balanced scorecard—based system for setting strategy and measuring performance linked together by specific strategic themes gives executives at corporate headquarters a way to communicate shared priorities and motivate people to share them in even the most complex businesses.
In effect, the themes describe a virtual organization in which decentralized units pursue their local strategies while simultaneously contributing to corporate priorities. EP, like many multinational and multiproduct organizations, was having trouble implementing a coherent strategy across its eight global product businesses, three regions, and six shared service units. Specifically EP would:.
The sequence of themes corresponded to the time frames required for successful implementation: Improving operating processes and logistics would deliver results in the near term nine to 15 months. It would take two to three years to create new portfolios of products that could provide more complete customer solutions. Realizing the benefits of developing and installing an entirely new business model to reach new customers would take three to four years.
DuPont EP viewed the five themes as the DNA of its strategy, the code that would be embedded in every business unit and shared service unit. It then cascaded the high-level strategic themes down the organization.
Each major geographic region and product unit built its own scorecard, which highlighted its unique objectives and initiatives for local strategy but also made clear how it would implement the five themes locally. This approach made opportunities for synergy across business units far more visible.
- [PDF] The Management of Distributed Projects Across Cultures - Semantic Scholar.
- A Parallel Life;
- Rewinding Small Motors;
- Getting Started with Paint.NET.
For instance, the financial objective for the theme of operational excellence is to minimize operating costs, which will require optimizing asset utilization at the process level, which in turn requires integration with a new sales model, described in the learning and growth perspective. EP, however, faced a classic conflict.
What Kind of System Do You Need?
The local units and their employees wanted to focus on running their businesses efficiently day-to-day. In the course of the workshop, the plastics manufacturer expressed frustration with its own product design processes, particularly the long time required to fix problems detected in early prototypes. The manufacturer felt that EP would do a better job because DuPont had a more holistic understanding of plastic materials and their manufacture. This initiative was a clear success for the theme of building complete solutions for customers.
An often fatal weakness of a matrix organization is the endless debates among business units, functional departments, and geographical regions about resource allocation. EP reported that the clarity of the five strategic themes, cutting as they did across units, regions, and functions, highlighted corporate priorities effectively and made it easier to understand why resources were allocated the way they were. This led to more productive discussion and dialogue based on a shared understanding of the fundamental drivers of overall business performance.
Individuals used the scorecard architecture and measures to gain support for agendas and projects. Enthusiasm and constructive discussions pervaded the organization because of that shared understanding of strategy. Public sector enterprises also find strategic themes powerful for getting their diverse units to cooperate so that they can achieve outcomes collectively beyond what the units would accomplish independently.
The approach is particularly well suited to this sector, where organizations are often hugely diverse and at the same time are limited politically in their freedom to experiment with structural change. Mapping strategic themes is particularly well suited to the public sector, where organizations have limited political freedom to experiment with structural change. In , the RCMP faced several challenges. There were budgetary constraints, and its resources were still not adequate for the policing environment of the twenty-first century. Even with his strong centralized leadership and vision, however, Zaccardelli faced the challenge of getting all RCMP units, scattered across an enormous land mass, to align with, and contribute to, corporate-level priorities.
The heart of the strategy for delivering on the mission was contained within a set of five overarching corporate-level strategic themes that formed part of the process perspective and went beyond everyday policing activities:. The five themes required national-level strategic coordination. Accordingly, the RCMP developed a separate strategy map for each, with its own initiatives, targets, and measures. Once the strategy maps and scorecards for the corporate-level strategy and the five strategic themes were completed, the cascading process to local units could commence.
Register for a free account
Each local divisional unit selected up to ten objectives for its own strategy that customized the high-level themes to the specific realities of its operations. Because no single organizational unit had complete ownership, responsibility, or accountability for any of the themes, the process promoted cooperation and integration among previously independent local, provincial, and national policing units, allowing them to share lessons learned and best practices. In one case, for example, a central functional group—the Criminal Intelligence Directorate—contributed to a theme in a way it would never have done before to reduce drug traffic in several aboriginal communities.
Initially, the strategic theme for making aboriginal communities safer focused on building better relations with them in order to meet their specific needs. But when the Criminal Intelligence Directorate was brought into the strategy, it identified a need to focus as well on identifying criminal threats that were preying on the communities. Accordingly, in , the RCMP undertook a major investigation that disrupted the delivery of drugs to several isolated northern aboriginal communities. Not every unit contributes to all themes equally, of course. In the Northwest Territories, for instance, the threat of terrorist activity would be low, so its strategy map does not contain objectives supporting this strategic theme.
But the unit could certainly play a vital role in reducing youth involvement in crime and creating healthier aboriginal communities. Conversely, an RCMP unit based in Toronto may not be able to make a great contribution to aboriginal communities but would be a central player in reducing threats from organized crime and terrorist activity. In this way, all units played a role in delivering on RCMP strategic priorities beyond their day and night job of local policing.
Both DuPont EP and the RCMP were able to use corporate scorecards and strategy maps organized around strategic themes to realize the enormous value that their portfolio of assets, people, and skills represented. As a result, they did not have to endure the rigors of a painful series of changes that simply replaced one rigid structure with another. They realized that a more flexible and less disruptive approach was to create a management system to serve as the interface between strategy and structure.
Fault-tolerance in a distributed management system: a case study - IEEE Conference Publication
Of course, motivating business units around strategic themes is not the only way of doing this—nor for some corporations will it be the most appropriate way. As companies look for ways to implement corporate-level strategies, they now have a new tool to consider. Educating staff four. However, as indicated in Figure 30, survey results from the Synthesis study respondents indicate that lack of FAA support was one of the two most significant challenges identi- fied among the survey respondents.
Additionally, airports surveyed noted that the impor- tance of the AC over all other documents was its ability to provide insights into the future FAA rulemaking. With regard to mitigations or methods to overcome the challenges, a variety of responses were collected, as shown in Figure Other methods that SMS pilot study airports believed would help overcome the challenges they faced include networking, working with local FAA offices, raising aware- ness, persistence, training, time management, and hiring experts. The most frequent response from all the airports, as presented in Table 25, was increased safety awareness.
The second most common response was improved collaboration. Many airports saw better communication and collaboration both internally among airport departments and with tenants through safety committee meetings and SRA panel sessions. Pursuit of Safety Management Systems The final two questions in the survey asked respondents if their airport would continue the development and implementation of the SMS.
Identify why you want to implement ITIL change management
Airports operate in similar environments as air carriers and business flight operators where adherence to standard operating procedures, proactive identification, mitigation of hazards and risks, and effective communications are crucial to continued operational safety. Accordingly, certificated airports could realize similar SMS benefits as an aircraft operator. The FAA envisions an SMS would provide an airport with an added layer of safety to help reduce the number of near-misses, incidents, and accidents.
- Elizabeth A. Regan Ph.D. - College of Engineering and Computing | University of South Carolina?
- Dear Corinne, Tell Somebody! Love, Annie: A Book About Secrets.
- Shear Localization in Granular Bodies with Micro-Polar Hypoplasticity?
An SMS also would ensure that all levels of airport manage- ment understand safety implications of airfield operations FAA Challenges Survey results from the Synthesis study report that lack of FAA support was one of the most significant challenges. Benefits Predictive safety relies on collecting and compiling informa- tion in a proactive manner. SMS provides a framework for improved data collection and analysis with regard to safety.
Hazard analysis and safety risk assessments allow management to formally document safety concerns.