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Geometrical frustration in the lattice enhances its sensitivity to bending. The optimized device with Cu Cr,Ba O 2 achieves a record efficiency as high as Critically, burst hydrolytic rates of substrates result in disassembly, thus mimicking the dynamic instability of microtubules. The right channel : Open 1D channels were able to recognize differences in molecular size when the pores were designed with a triangular shape and discrete size in covalent organic frameworks.

This finding introduces the possibility of using 1D channels for selective transport and instant molecular separation with infinite selectivity see picture. How much is the reactivity of coordinated CO 2 affected by the initial bonding mode? Spectroscopic measurements and DFT calculations provide useful mechanistic insights. How exciting! For the demonstration of physical forces in biology, a general concept in supramolecular chemistry, that focuses on chalcogen bonds, is introduced to access the desired stable, evolvable mechanochemistry tools. The source of inspiration of their rational design is illustrated in freeze—thaw cycles in DMSO.

The results place these HfN core—shell nanoparticles amongst one of the most promising catalysts for OER tested to date, in terms of sustainability, activity and stability. Let there be light! The resulting cyclometalated lanthanum reagents are versatile intermediates for the facile preparation of valuable polyfunctional biaryl derivatives.

The fluorescent signal from the microorganism corresponding to the production of green fluorescent protein is governed by the biunivocal communication with the nanodevice through enzymatic reactions and the exchange of chemical messengers. On the surface : The selectivity for either hydrogen evolution of CO 2 reduction can be controlled by using either electrical energy or photon energy. Competition between hydrogen evolution and CO 2 reduction was observed under electrochemical conditions for both glassy carbon and CuInS 2 electrodes.

Not to be underestimated : A tetrameric pentacene see structure was designed as a model system to explore the influence of exciton delocalization on singlet fission SF and subsequent triplet decorrelation by exciton diffusion following intramolecular SF. Experiment and theory showed the delocalization of singlet and triplet excitons among the four pentacenes and highlighted spin catalysis as a substantial obstacle to quantitative harvesting of SF products. Tuning the microenvironment of nanoreactors achieves the transformation from an inactive to active state of ruthenium nanoparticles NPs for benzoic acid hydrogenation in organic solvent.

Yu, J. Liu, Q. When the surface tension and viscosity of the liquid surface are adjusted, the thickness of the applied solution, and thus the thickness of the resulting crystalline organic semiconductors can be controlled. The reaction is facilitated by coordination of an NHBz group in the substrates to the cobalt atom and a nonbonding interaction with the ligand.

Divergent pathways : Vinylidene boronic esters can be obtained by the homologation of boronic esters with lithiated epoxysilane in a process where the selectivity for the vinyl boronic ester or vinyl silane product depends on the anion stabilizing ability of the R group.

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The methodology was applied in a short stereoselective synthesis of the proposed structure of machillene, however, synthetic and reported data did not match. This porous carbon material exhibited superior electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction ORR in the Zn—air battery. Au 24 Cu 6 SPh t Bu 22 was synthesized. The prepared nanostructures exhibited enhanced plasmonic performance owing to their interior nanogaps, which strongly promote the plasmonic field.

A Utilitarian Perspective on Companion Animals with Prof. Gary Varner

Pedersen, R. It is highly elastic and reversibly stretchable. This supercapacitor can be stretched and recovered for times with no obvious performance degradation and strain residue, exhibiting excellent elasticity at device level. In the solid state and in solution, isomerization is facile with a low energy barrier. Brush polymer formulations utilizing cell penetrating peptides could promote delivery of Cre recombinase, whereas oligopeptides alone or oligopeptides displayed on nanoparticles did not. Unusual phase tester : An accessible pentapeptide system for studying gel—crystal phase transitions in supramolecular gels is introduced.

Pathogen detection is important in the global health arena because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections. The interface plays a critical role in the electrochemical performance of batteries. The development of this technique is a case study in how a scientific advance emerges gradually in incremental steps within overlapping global scientific communities. Antibody libraries and phage display have provided the key elements for the creation of a fast evolutionary system for the generation of fully human antibody medicines.

Important steps leading to this development are outlined by G. Winter in his Nobel lecture. The canopy : Molybdenum alkylidyne complexes with triarylsilanolate ligands are privileged catalysts for alkyne metathesis, but tethering of the silyl groups seems to make things even better.

Selective catalytic hydrogenation of propylene to propane at room temperature occurs in the gas phase at the metal nodes of a crystalline CuRh bimetallic metal—organic framework. The Rh II ions are identified as the catalytically active sites. CEST for life : Normal prostate tissue has the highest zinc content in the body. Reduction of quinoxaline is a key step in the transformation. Twinning of the metastable crystals and two twinning mirror axes were found.

A variety of complex twin crystals are formed by one or a combination of these two mirror axes. Enzymatic activity can be modified by strongly coupling the vibrational stretching transitions of water. The activity of pepsin decreased 4. Spatial sequencing : A method for spatially resolved genetic analysis of FFPE cell block and tissue sections is presented. This involves local sampling with hydrodynamic flow confinement of a lysis buffer, electrokinetic purification of nucleic acids from the lysate, and detection of single point mutations through amplification and sequencing.

DNA nanotechnology can be used to form amphiphilic DNA nanoplates that stabilize water droplets in oil by accumulating at the oil—water interface. These DNA nanoplates stabilize the oil—water interface and can function as channels to transport ions across this interface. These findings provide a general strategy for the design of microcapsules to engineer artificial cells and molecular robots. Concerted or stepwise? Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations show an unusual mechanism, including the first installation of a trifluoropyruvate electrophile at C3 of indoles, towards the formation of the key enamine nucleophile, followed by the addition of the second trifluoropyruvate.

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All aglow : Organic—metal halide perovskite materials present a high blue photoluminesence quantum yield of up to As shown by A. Mebel, R. Hydrophobic DD3R zeolite is a benchmark membrane material for Xe recovery.

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The CO 2 permeance is one order magnitude higher than conventional membranes and is less susceptible to humidity. The ring of fire : A strong chirality transfer is observed in a resonance Raman optical activity ROA experiment of a nickel complex in various solvents. The phenomenon might find applications in molecular studies, for example, in the sensitive detection of biomolecules. When synthesized directly onto a porous anodized aluminum oxide AAO support, it permits stable, low overpotential Mg striping and plating.

This work demonstrates that MOF thin film is a promising choice for future Mg battery applications. The outcome of the reaction depends on the coordination mode of L. Alternative mechanistic roles of organocatalysts in CO 2 based reactions with amines are extremely rare. The performance and durability of the direct methanol fuel cell are thus greatly improved. Wiring up tungsten : Dimetallated C x carbon wires in which two metals are separated by a linear carbon chain involving terminal metal—carbon triple bonds were prepared.

Changes to the metal—phosphorus bonding as a function of coordination number at P are analyzed crystallographically and computationally. The spin state singlet or triplet of a magnetically bistable carbene is controlled by a remote methoxy group as a conformational switch. This method provides an alternative means of producing planar Pt II complexes, which can be difficult to synthesize by traditional solution processing, but are essential for molecular stacking in electroluminescent devices.

This work provides a rational basis for the design of lipid—polymer amphiphiles for optimized lymphoid targeting. Oxidizing hydride : The incorporation of hydride species into reduced ceria causes oxidation of the oxide. Accompanying changes in the electronic structure of the oxide are investigated, as well as the thermal stability of the hydride species. The materials also enable the clean dehydrogenation of borazane.

NNO worries : The synthesis and comprehensive characterisation of two rhodium I complexes of nitrous oxide are reported. These normally elusive adducts are stable in the solid state and persist in solution at ambient temperature. The obtained hybrid supercapacitor delivers a high energy density of Modus operandi : Combined operando spectroscopy provided new insight into the mode of operation of widely used SnO 2 gas sensors. The relation of the sensor response to the number of surface oxygen vacancies and the nature of the adsorbates was determined.

These findings may be of direct relevance for other metal oxide gas sensors as well, and underline the importance of a detailed spectroscopic analysis under working conditions. Quat a wonderful world! It features a 3D network composed of a 1D chains composed of Bi 2 O 8 dimers that are further bridged by Ge 2 O 7 dimers, that confines the BiO 5 and GeO 4 units to be assembled in a favorable alignment fashion and displays quite a large SHG efficiency of about The Au I formate in turn loses CO 2 at room temperature upon application of vacuum and this process can be expedited at lower temperatures by using NHC.

The unusually long decay is associated with the significantly distorted geometry. This permits monitoring reactions of scarce or expensive reagents and opens up the potential for future automated synthetic discovery platforms.

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This, they argue, is because many animal rights propo- nents believe that all human—animal relations are already from the beginning corrupted by a power asymmetry that will inevitably bring back hierarchy and oppression. That is to say, in a world where negative animal rights are fully respected, humans will no longer keep domesticated animals or breed more of them.

But no such separation is possible. Human cities teem with non-domesticated animals—feral pets, escaped exotics, wild animals whose habitat has been enveloped by human development, migrating birds—not to mention the literally billions of opportunistic animals who gravitate to, and thrive in, symbiosis with human development, such as starlings, foxes, coyotes, sparrows, mal- lard ducks, squirrels, raccoons, badgers, skunks, groundhogs, deer, rabbits, bats, rats, mice, and countless others.

These animals are affected every time we chop down a tree, divert waterway, build a road or housing development, or erect a tower. The task, rather, is to show how ART, when specified to include both positive and negative duties, sets the conditions under which these This content downloaded from This turn to citizenship theory may seem like an unlikely move.

Already from the creation of the concept in Classical Greece, citizenship has been considered as something exclusively reserved for humans. Aristotle, for example, defined the political community or polis as a strictly human realm in explicit contradistinction to the heights of the gods on one hand and the lowly world of the animals on the other Aristotle, , p. And even today, close to two and a half millennia later, animal rights advocates often have to explain that animal equality does not mean promoting animals to citizens.

But as Donaldson and Kymlicka point out, this is a narrow view of what citizenship is about. In fact, citizenship was never only about the ability to vote or directly participate in decision making. It was always a much richer notion, and one that can very well ac- commodate nonhuman subjects alongside human ones. First of all, the concept covers the right to residency—that is, the right to have a home in a territorial state, including the right to return after traveling abroad.

Third, citizenship implies political agency, the ability to participate in form- ing the rules of social cooperation—in essence, to be a lawmaker. Defined in this way, the initial assumption that animals cannot be citizens begins to dissolve. To begin with, no one is likely to deny that an animal can have a home.

And if this is already an established norm—albeit one that existing institutions often fail to fully live up to—then there should be no principled objection against making similar arrangements for domesticated animals as well. This citizenship status, however, would not be extended to all animals. Donaldson and Kymlicka reserve it for domesticated animals, those species who live among us humans and who have become dependent on us for their existence. When it comes to other This content downloaded from In the latter case, modern citizenship theory defines three categories of second-tier rights-holders.

First, there are the permanent citizens of a state who enjoy a full set of citizenship rights. Finally, there are those people who are citizens of other sovereign states and therefore fall under a completely different jurisdiction. We argue that, as in the human case, some animals are best viewed as co- citizens in our political community whose interests count in determining our collective good; others are best viewed as temporary visitors, or non-citizen denizens, whose interests set side-constraints on how we pursue our collective good; and yet others are best viewed as residents of their own political communities, whose sovereignty and territory we should respect.

And it leads to some quite radical conclusions.

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  5. Although Donaldson and Kymlicka affirm that humans and domesticated animals may continue to live together and enjoy mutually beneficial relations in a post-liberation world , they place strict limitations on what animals may be used for. Another notable conclusion is that it would become unacceptable to kill some animal citizens in order to feed others.

    As members of a just multispecies community, the argu- ment goes, dogs and cats would enjoy legal protection of their lives and liberty, but so would the other domesticated animals who are today routinely fed to carnivorous pets. Slaughtering some members of the community to feed others would thus be banned since it would amount to cannibalism among citizens. Until then, the authors suggest, why not use the surplus eggs produced by the friendly neighborhood citizen-hens to feed the cats?

    In other words, the air, the seas, and all other ecosystems where humans do not already reside are strictly off-limits This content downloaded from Then again, what makes a moral argument successful is not that it conforms to existing hierarchies and norms but that it is consistent in its own right. And Donaldson and Kymlicka certainly back up even their most chal- lenging conclusions with enthusiastic argumentation.

    This commitment on the part of the authors notwithstanding, some important questions remain. The first set of problems has to do with the nation-state analogy on which Don- aldson and Kymlicka model their citizenship theory of animal rights. This is a seductive conceptual metaphor, no doubt because we are so used to nationality, nationalism, and the state structuring our lives and interactions at so many levels.

    But why should we accept it? One question—insofar as we are intent on drawing analogies—is why the nation-state frame should be privileged over some other, equally possible alternative drawn from hu- man relations. Why the state and not, say, the family? We are all evolutionary related, after all. Or why not the market?

    Why not friendship or love as experienced by many humans who have close relations to companion animals and as theorized by feminist and care ethics theorists? Another question is why a historically specific institutional configuration consisting of sovereign nation-states, an international state system, and the resulting system of citizenship regulations should be a proper normative model for the human—animal relationship. Why is it that this particular world order is better suited to be transposed onto human—animal relations than any other historical or future counterpart?

    After all, no one would suggest modeling human—animal relations after, say, Pleistocene tribal relations or feudal vassal- age. One gets the feeling here that the authors operate with an implicit understanding of the present world order as some kind of transhistorical absolute something, it should be emphasized, that goes against their commendable sensitivity to historical injustices in other parts of their presentation.

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    That is, if we accept inviolable basic rights, we are also bound to accept citizenship rights according to the liberal model, at least as long as we live in a world with bounded political communities. What is left out here, however, is an exploration of the possible alternatives. Cosmopolitan theories of a world where passports are abolished and people take their individual rights with them everywhere are briefly mentioned and rejected, but there is also a whole register of other viewpoints that never get developed at all.

    What about, for example, Habermasian postnationalism, Marxist internationalism, anarchist confederalism, world-government theories, and antiracist no-border activism, to mention just a few—are there no real challenges to the liberal citizenship framework? Or, more to the point, why is the latter perspective the self-evident candidate for extension to interspecies relations? Questions such as these are hardly addressed in the book, which is a bit surprising given the long-standing debates within the field of citizenship theory. One point they wish to drive home is that their perspective offers a way to deal with the thorny issue of human itarian intervention in nature.

    As mentioned previously, they believe that traditional ART is either too restrictive about such intervention thus letting environ- mental destruction go unhindered or generative of destruction itself, by demanding massive intervention into predator—prey relations or food cycles in order to safeguard individual rights. We may have some positive duties to intervene in these other communities such as warding off natural disasters, epidemics, or other threats to their autonomy , but in general we should avoid meddling in their affairs and focus on establishing fair rules of cooperation between our communities.

    These may all be good principles for regulating everyday relations between states. But, as everybody knows, a number of thorny issues arise when states fail to respect, or uphold the respect for, basic human rights. A range of complicated questions emerge here, from issues such as ethnic and gender discrimination to the death penalty, pogroms, and even genocide. To what extent do other states have a right or a duty to intervene This content downloaded from Should we respect national sovereignty, or do individual rights always come first?

    These complications become even more acute if we transpose the notion of sover- eignty to animals in nature. If we believe that the deer has inviolable rights, should we protect her from the wolf? Given the two-tiered model of rights that Donaldson and Kymlicka propound, one would expect inviolable individual rights to take precedence over derivative citizenship rights.

    But this is not how they end up dealing with the problematic. Instead they emphasize the primacy of sovereignty and argue that the ills that befall animals in predator—prey relations or as a result of food shortages should not, as a rule, be counted as rights violations. Nonhuman flourishing is guaranteed precisely by the checks and balances imposed by evolutionary struggle.

    (PDF) Animal National Liberation? | Per-Anders Svärd -

    But this move simply conflates the individual level where rights emerge and the aggregate ecosystem level. It does not explain how individual rights are served by abandoning their bearers to the caprices of their natural tormentors. Justice emerges as a norma- tive concern only under conditions of moderate scarcity and limited altruism. This means, in effect, that judg- ments about whether rights are respected or violated in encounters between animals are pointless because they occur in a terrain where justice is per definition ruled out.

    But even if we accept this argument, it does not answer the basic question about justified intervention. First of all, even if the circumstances of justice do not exist, we may have an obligation to create them if we can. But this is already stretching the concept of autonomy because it is difficult to see how aggregate entities of this kind could determine their future and act autonomously in any meaningful sense.

    Human states are, of course, also aggregate and impersonal entities, but it is easier to see how a body politic of this kind could be said to act in a goal-oriented way on the basis of aggregated citizen interest. When we add to this the fact that nonhuman sovereign communities do not operate under the circumstances of justice, the analogy to international relations dissolves even more. This leaves us with an important question: Why do we have a duty to respect the sovereignty of societies where the circumstances of justice do not exist?

    Eating animals is wrong

    And unlike Donaldson and Kymlicka, I do not believe there has to be a contradiction between this view and the possibility of positive obligations in human—animal relations. Unlike moral philosophy, political theory has been highly resistant to the problems and insights surrounding the animal issue. Where the argument fails, it fails productively and in ways that are bound to inspire further thought and critique. To many people the supplementation of one alien idea with another contrived from the first will just seem like an abstract theoretical exercise.

    If and when animal rights are won, I have a hard time seeing that a nation-state metaphor is going to be the factor tipping the scales. Nevertheless, Zoo- polis deserves to be widely read for its abundance of fresh ideas—especially in the field of political theory, where animal rights are still neglected in a way that often makes the discipline of moral philosophy look like vegan paradise in comparison.

    References Aristotle. The politics. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. Dombrowski, D. Babies and beasts: The argument from marginal cases. Chicago: Uni- versity of Illinois Press. A response to Deckers.