Men equipped with "jam dogs" iron hooks , cant hooks or peaveys , and often immersed in chilly water, began the dangerous task of floating the cut-out on streams overflowing with melted snow. As steam power replaced water power in sawmills , it increased mill capacity and extended the season of mill operation; however, it did not break the pattern of winter logging. Although railways reduced the industry's dependence on rivers to transport timber to the mills, their initial importance was in carrying lumber from mill to market, and by the end of the century, specialized logging railways still only had a slight impact on eastern Canadian operations.
Large masts, cut for the Royal Navy from the finest trees of the mixed forest that swept through the Maritimes and the St Lawrence Valley, were the most valuable commercial product of British North American forests. The naval mast trade, always limited by its specialized and high quality requirements, shifted from the Saint John to the St Lawrence Valley early in the 19th century when contractors sought oak , as well as pine , from the deciduous forests of the southern Great Lakes area. The square timber industry developed rapidly to meet the enormous demand from Britain, which was at war with Napoleonic France and was also undergoing industrialization.
On average, 9, loads almost 1. Thereafter imports fluctuated for 20 years around , loads and then declined until WWI. Despite the importance of the naval mast trade, sawn lumber and square timber were the major staples of the wood industry. Lumber, the product of sawmills , was prepared mostly as planks and boards. Strict specifications governed the market—the wood was allowed to have a "wane" bevel and slight taper, but these specifications varied according to the stick's dimensions and changed with time. Waste was quite considerable: per cent of each tree was discarded.
The pattern of the lumber trade is hard to summarize, since international markets were widely separated. While these numbers are impressive, up until the s combined lumber and timber sales to Britain were still more valuable than those to the US.
Harold Hongju Koh
Pine was the industry's major species, although small quantities of birch , white oak, rock elm, ash , basswood, butternut and cedar were also cut and squared, and spruce and hemlock lumber increased in importance after the mid-century. The exploitation of pine rapidly encompassed a wide area. In only the fringes of New Brunswick 's pine forests had been cut, and the Ottawa-Gatineau area marked the inland limit of lumbering in British North America. But by , barely a tributary of the Miramichi, Saint John and Ottawa rivers remained unexploited.
By much of the pine had been harvested from the more accessible reaches of these river systems, and trade from many small ports and coastal inlets had ceased. Railways broke the industry's dependence on water courses for the movement of wood to markets and opened the back-country of lakes Ontario and Erie to the trade. Exports from the Peterborough area increased fivefold when the railway arrived in , and between and , Simcoe County rose from insignificance to pre-eminence among lumber producers in Canada West. Mills proliferated along railways pushing northward into the Canadian Shield.
The government was slow to control this onslaught on the forest. Initially British North American forests were ineffectively protected by the imperial "broad arrow" system, which involved blazing certain trees with arrows and which was implemented in North America early in the 18th century to reserve valuable trees for the Royal Navy. As demand rose after , crown reserves i.
In in New Brunswick and in Upper and Lower Canada , a coherent regulatory system was established. In British North American provinces except Nova Scotia , the sale of licences conferred a temporary right to cut trees and returned revenue to the government. Periodic amendments attempted to limit the illegal cutting and trespassing which vexed administrators intent on maximizing revenues, but the basic principles of crown ownership and leasehold tenure of the resource were upheld. In marked contrast to the American pattern, present-day Canadian forest law with the exception of that in Nova Scotia —shaped by the interplay of tradition, self-interest and the limitations of a vast and hostile environment—has preserved something of the 18th-century conservative idea of how the state should serve the common good.
Before , most British North American timber was produced by small-scale independent operators, many of them farmers who were attracted to the work in their off-season. Good timber was readily available and little capital was required to enter the trade. By , however, as lumbering moved into more remote areas, expenditure on the clearing of boulder-strewn streams to transport the timber via the water became necessary. Regulation of crown reserves tightened, and the declining trade intensified competition among operators.
Large and diversified operations emerged, although smaller enterprises persisted on the settlement frontiers. Generally the skilled, the well capitalized, and the well-connected dominated the trade by acquiring licences, employing lumbering gangs under contract, building large, efficient sawmills, and operating their own vessels or railways. For example, in the s Joseph Cunard and three branch houses of the great Scottish firm of Pollok, Gilmour and Co virtually controlled the trade of northeastern New Brunswick by these means.
Subsidiaries of the company were also important in the St Lawrence Valley. In the Ottawa country, J. Booth 's firm produced over 30 million board feet of pine lumber in the s, and in the next decade it built the Canada Atlantic Railway to bring out the cut from its Parry Sound licences. Calvin experienced similarly spectacular successes. The early, informal trade gave way to an industry dominated by relatively few well-capitalized family firms and partnerships. For this reason, the chronic instability of the early years was somewhat reduced.
In the 20th century, as pulp and paper production grew, capital requirements increased further. Many firms amalgamated, shaping the patterns of corporate dominance that mark the forest industry today. Compared to the situation in eastern Canada, innovations were accepted more quickly in the rugged, newly opened areas of British Columbia. Working and living conditions improved as city industries and West Coast logging camps competed for labour. These changes, when combined with the opening of the Panama Canal and the exhaustion of eastern forests, meant the centre of Canadian wood production gradually shifted westward though the eastern lumber industry retained much of its traditional and seasonal character into the s.
Although James Cook 's men had cut logs for masts on Vancouver Island in , lumbering in British Columbia did not begin seriously until the s. The early industry exploited the huge trees close to the tidewater mainly Douglas Fir and red cedar and served markets scattered around the Pacific and as distant as South Africa. With the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the s, this "cargo trade" was supplemented by trade to the east.
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Hugh Ellwood Macbeth, Sr. In speeches, lobbying, investigatory reports, and lawsuits, he challenged official discrimination. After graduating from Fisk University, he earned a law degree from Harvard University in Macbeth lived in Baltimore for approximately five years and became founding editor of the newspaper The Baltimore Times. In , Macbeth moved to Los Angeles, California and opened a law office. Macbeth pressed numerous cases challenging segregation laws and restrictive housing covenants.
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In , he was appointed resident consul for the Republic of Liberia. However, he also represented white clients including John Hunt, a white disciple of the religious leader Father Divine. Macbeth likewise engaged in outside activism. Following World War I, he struggled unsuccessfully to build a colony in Mexico for black emigrants. In he was named general counsel for the Utopian Society, a largely-white economic reform group that claimed , members.
Macbeth was named executive secretary and sole black commissioner. In the first week of January , Macbeth travelled to Guadalupe and Santa Barbara, California to investigate the cases of Issei who had been rounded up and interned by the Justice Department during December Following interviews with the internees' families, he discovered that all those taken were prosperous truck farmers with large families and that none was suspected of sabotage.
Outraged by the arrests, Macbeth turned to organizing support for Japanese Americans among liberal groups on the West Coast, and to speaking in favor of the rights of Japanese Americans in public forums. In addition to his local efforts, Macbeth moved to organizing on a nationwide scale, in hopes of averting federal action against Japanese Americans. Using the Race Relations Committee's assistant, Ann Ray, a Socialist Party member, as a conduit, he undertook an extensive correspondence with socialist leader Norman Thomas, the only national political figure to oppose mass removal.
Thomas made extensive use of information provided by Macbeth on the treatment of Japanese Americans in a series of articles in the socialist newspaper, The Weekly Call , and in radio speeches. Macbeth would later act as cosigner and sponsor of Thomas's widely distributed pamphlet, "Democracy and the Japanese Americans.
Deciding that military control over Japanese Americans could no longer be averted, he altered his strategy. On February 22, he sent President Franklin D. He took the opportunity to remind the general that his creation of "martial law zones" had left Japanese Americans "deeply hurt" and bitter.
Even as he resigned himself to mass removal, Macbeth remained interested in bringing a constitutional challenge to the government's orders. At oral argument in October , Macbeth charged also that race-based confinement constituted unconstitutional racial discrimination.
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