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Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser. Detailed illustrations, clear photos, and thorough text show you how to make a sharp, reliable. Covers everything from choosing the right tools and materials to building the gun's major components to final finishing and bluing. For academic study only. He first learned about gunsmithing more than 50 years ago from a guy who took his "fix-it" wagon all around doing odd jobs.

Since then, Bill has designed and constructed innumerable firearms, written seven books and been featured in two videos for Paladin and become one of the country's best-known and most highly respected authorities on home-workshop weapons and firearms laws. See All Customer Reviews.

Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. The wood pile is then ignited and allowed to bum completely. The metal parts will usually fall into the ashes and coals, where they should be covered using a rake or shovel and allowed to cool slowly, overnight preferably. This probably won't heat material as thick as an axle to the bright red required to completely anneal it, but it will soften it to a point where it can be machined readily. The open-bolt version is made by turning an adequate length of material to a size that will slide freely inside the receiver.

This should be. A smaller bolt nose, which enters the barrel counterbore, must be formed at the forward end of the bolt. This should project.


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This may have a slightly odd appearance, but it results In the most foolproof 29 Home Workshop Guns for Defense and Resistance. A strip. Note that the slot on the ejector slide must be deeper to provide clearance for the ejector. Another small slot. This should be made from quality material which will not deform or batter easily. This is mandatory to assure that the bolt picks up cartridges reliably from the magazine. When finished, the firing pin should extend, or protrude, some. At the rear end of each of these, a.

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Recoil spring diameter will dictate the size hole required to accept it. Ml Carbine springs measure from. This hole should be 2 inches deep. Bevel the edge slighfl to assist in guiding the spring. The finished bolt is inserted in the receiver in its exact up and down position. The hole forthg bolt handle is marked through the slot, the bo removed, and the hole drilled.

Enough dearana must be provided to assure that the handle doej not contact the forward end of the bolt slot. The feeding flange must still be installed, but the forward end is flush with the bolt face. A section at the rear end is reduced to. This mates with the firing pin; which is silver-soldered in place. Another slot is cut on the bottom side, forming a shoulder to engage the sear. Better material than sheet metal must be used ' for the firing pin. The extractors, likewise, should be made from the same material. These, however, are cul thinner, to a. Notoi that only the extractor on the ejection port side: is a true extractor.

The one on the inside has an angled hook to permit the ejector to kick the cartridge rim out from under it. Its only purpose is to hold the case rim in its propefi location against the bolt face and against the true extractor as it is withdrawn from the chamber. Install in bolt body before drilling. Interchangable bolts: closed bolt on left, open bolt on right. Open-bolt assembly. Closed bolt with springs and spring guide in place, ready for installation. Disassembled closed bolt showing striker, extractors, and bolt body. Open-bolt assembly; fixed firing pin is on loiver side of bolt face.

I The trigger assembly described here is composed of four parts plus pins and springs. While slightly unorthodox as compared to others in guns of this type, it is designed to function equally well in both open- and closed-bolt configurations. With only slight modification it will serve as a two-stage trigger for a full- automatic version whereby a short, light pull will fire single rounds, functioning as a semi- automatic, and a longer pull against a heavier, stiffer spring will cause the gun to continue to fire I as long as the trigger is held back.

Don't say I didn't warn you.

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Two of the parts, the sear and trigger block, must be made from material capable of being hardened. The trigger requires no heat treatment and can be made from any available steel. The trigger bar is cut from 12 gauge sheet metal. It can be helpful, in some instances, to make cardboard patterns or templates of parts such as I these. These are placed on the material to be used and drawn or scribed around, leaving an outline of the part to be cut.

It can be helpful to drill the pivot pin hole first and lay out the shape of the part around it. This is far easier than trying to drill a precisely located hole in a finished or semifinished part. The trigger blade is cut first. It can either be sawed into a narrow strip and the curve bent into it, or the front face can be formed with a 1 inch diameter end mill. This is done first simply because you need enough material on the other end to hold on to while forming it. The front face can be crowned or rounded slightly using a half round file or, if available, a high-speed grinder of the Dremel tool variety.

The upper leg can be formed by milling or sawing it to shape. The only critical dimension on this part is the distance between the pin holes, and even this need not be exact. The rest can be shaped to suit the maker. The projection at the rear is only required for the full-automatic version. This part should be cut slightly oversize and finished after bending. The tab at the upper center with the small hole should be bent to the rear at a 30 degree angle.

The coil pull spring connects to this and not only serves as a trigger return spring but exerts upward pressure on the forward part of the trigger bar. Exact dimensions cannot be given since this part must be hand- fitted during assembly. The sear should be wide enough, from the pin hole forward, to prevent sidewise movement 35 Home Workshop Guns for Defense and Resistance when mounted in place.

The leaf spring material suggested may not be thick enough for this. If material of sufficient thickness is not available, a spacer can be soldered or cemented on one or both sides to increase the thickness. Note that the spring pocket is all that keeps the spring in place during assembly, so it should be at least as deep as shown. The trigger block, for lack of a better name, should also be almost as wide as the inside of the frame.

This too can have a spacer or washer, but only on the left side as viewed from the rear. The small projection at the upper right hand comer is engaged by the notch on the trigger bar which pushes it out from under the sear when the trigger is pulled, causing the gun to fire. Here again, the overall shape is not terribly important. While we are engaged in making these parts, we may as well go ahead and make up the magazine latch. Here again, the overall shape is not that important.

The pivot pin hole should not be drilled first as with the other parts but is drilled with the gun assembled and the magazine in place. The latch is pushed up firmly against the retaining notch in the magazine and the hole drilled. This will result in a near perfect fit without any cutting and trying, as is required when fitting some of the other parts. Grind a slight taper on one end of these pins to allow them to enter the slightly smaller holes on the off side without undue resistance.

The protruding ends should be rounded slightly. The trigger bar is installed on the trigger and pinned in place. Then, all the parts are installed in their respective positions but on the outside of the frame. It should be obvious what is required to fit these parts to a point where they work the way they are intended. The only part that should require much fitting is the trigger bar. With the trigger block positioned in place under the sear and the trigger in an approximation of its forward-most position, the notch at the front of the trigger bar must rise into position behind the projection on the trigger block without binding.

Mark the notch location and cut it back to the mark. When it seems to work correctly, the parts should be mounted in their respective positions inside the frame and tried. Springs can be kept in place during assembly by filling the spring pockets with wheel bearing grease. Too much metal removed from the trigger bar notch will result in excessive trigger travel. Removing a small amount of metal from the face of the trigger block will allow it to move forward, reducing the gap between the notch and the trigger bar projection. Several tries may be required before you get this perfect.

But when, and if, you do, a short, light trigger pull will result. If the two-stage trigger is to be installed, another notch must be cut some. This is simply to cause enough resistance to distinguish between the first and second stages of the trigger. The harder, longer pull against this spring causes the second notch on the trigger bar to push and hold the trigger block out of engagement with the sear, allowing the bolt to reciprocate freely. This will not work with the closed bolt in place since the cartridge rim will hang up under the firing pin, interfering with feeding.

One more time: this trigger mechanism, in combination with the open bolt, wiU result in an illegal firearm.

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The closed-bolt gun should be adequate for your needs. Trigger block. Trigger xvith trigger bar pinned in place. Trigger and trigger bar. It should preferably be a dense-grained wood such as maple, myrtle, walnut, or similar. Cabinet shops and furniture factories will very likely have a piece of scrap wood suitable for this. Lumber- yards will surely have it, but you will very likely be compelled to buy an 8-foot board just to obtain a small piece. Stock blank suppliers also offer grip and forend blanks.

While it is possible to make up such a grip using fiberglass or cast epoxy, this is an expensive, time-consuming process when only one unit is needed. Assuming that a wood blank is used, a wide slot offering a snug fit over the frame is cut as deep as the frame height. The easiest way to do this is by using an end mill in the milling machine. The radiused corners can be formed with a small-diameter ball cutter. Although more labor is required, the same result can be achieved by making parallel saw cuts, as close together as possible, to the specified depth. With the grip blank fitted in place over the frame, it is pushed forward against the end of the trigger guard strap and its location marked on the front side of the grip blank.

With the grip blank again in place and pushed forward over the end of the trigger guard strap, the bolt hole location is marked from the top through the existing bolt hole in the frame. This provides clearance for the bolt head. The bottom shoulder of this counterbore should be flat.

This is accomplished by grinding the drill point flat after the hole is almost to depth and finishing it with this. The shape of the grip as shown feels comfortable, to me at least. I thought it had sort of a racy look. It can be reshaped to any individual taste. Forming to the desired shape can be accomplished most of the way with a disc Sander. It is finished with a rasp, file, and sandpaper.

Sanding is accomplished using progressively finer grits of sandpaper. When you are satisfied with this, finish can be applied. This can consist of any number of finishes — oil, varnish, plastic, shellac, or whatever you like best. A durable. Three or more coats are applied, drying between coats, and sanded back to the wood. This is repeated until all pores are filled.

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It is then given three or more coats and waxed. If a "military" look is desired, several coats of flat black paint, filled and sanded as described, will give a finish closely resembling black plastic but will be far more durable. This can also be formed with a saw and chisel. Finished grip mounted on frame. Grip is rough-shaped zvith disk sander and finished with rasps and sandpaper. The gun described herein has only a simple blade front sight and a fixed, notched rear. When these are aligned and cut to the proper height, they are completely adequate for their intended use.

The sights could be machined from solid blocks if desired, but it is far easier to form them from sheet metal blanks using a vise, a heavy hammer, and a pair of simple form blocks. The front blade and rear crosspiece are cut separately and silver soldered in place. Form blocks, which can be used to form both the front and rear bases, are made up to form the protective ears and bases simultaneously.

One block, which forms the curve or radius on the bottom side, is made from a short length of round stock of the same diameter as the receiver and approximately 2 inches long. The other block should be curved on the bottom side to match the diameter of the other plus the thickness of the sheet metal used. In this case, it is 1 inch plus the thickness of the 16 gauge sheet metal, which is.

This block should be.

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With both blocks clamped together, these holes are extended into the round blocks. Guide pins are positioned in the holes to keep the assembly in line while forming the parts. In practice, a sheet metal blank is positioned between the two blocks and the assembly squeezed together using the vise.

This will form the bottom contour. One upright side can be formed by forging with a block and hammer. The assembly is then turned over and again clamped in the vise, whereupon the other upright side is formed. The process is repeated to form the other base. A lengthwise slot is cut down the center of one base to accept the front sight blade. The other win have a slot cut crosswise for the rear sight crosspiece. Both blade and crosspiece should be snug fits into the slots. Ten gauge sheet metal is, supposedly,. This can be dressed slightly for a precise fit.

Eleven gauge is approximately. The slightly loose fit when using this can be 45 Home Workshop Guns for Defense and Resistance eliminated by upsetting the edges of the slots slightly with a small punch. The blades are fluxed and silver soldered in place. It may be necessary to recontour the bottom side of the bases slightly to remove excess silver solder or any protruding portion of the blades. With flux applied to the adjoining surfaces, both sights are clamped in place and secured using silver solder.

By inserting it into the top sides of the sights and clamping it to the receiver, this will hold both sights in alignment while mounting. When joining steel gun parts, use silver solder with a 40 to 50 percent silver content. This will flow freely at a lower temperature than the low silver content crud used by plumbers, which is virtually useless for our purpose. When cool, any residue generated as a result of the joining process should be removed and the rear sight notch cut. This will be regulated later, after assembly. The Williams' Guide rear sight or its clone, the Marble 20, which is a steel copy of the aluminum Williams, can be mounted inside the rear base, assuming the crosspiece is removed, of course.

A simple form die is made by drilling a short piece of round stock of the same diameter as the receiver to accept two locating pins. A block of the desired width is radiused on the bottom side and holes are drilled to match the guide pins. Matching holes are drilled in the sheet metal blanks. A blank is placed over the locating pins and the form block put in place. Assembly is clamped in vise. After one side is formed, the assembly is turned over and the other side is formed in the same manner.

Side is folded against block using block and hammer. Note that the assembly is supported underneath. This preifents it from moving downward in the vise due to hammer blows. Rear sight base and insert. Front sight base and blade. Rear sight assembled. Front sight, top view. View from lower side showing blades in place. Rear sight, top view. Assembly and Adjustment With aU the component parts completed, the gun should be assembled and tested before final polishing and bluing is done.

Any final fitting and adjustment should be done at this time. All working parts should have a smooth finish, with no burrs and scratches evident. Flat- sided parts, such as the sear and trigger, should have flat, smooth sides, square with the tops and bottoms, finished to a point where they feel slick when handled.

One way to achieve such a finish is by placing progressively finer sheets of abrasive cloth or paper on top of a piece of plate glass. The glass provides a stiff, solid, smooth backing for the cloth. The part to be polished is moved back and forth across the abrasive surface while maintairung downward pressure.

An extremely fine, even finish can be obtained in this fashion. When all of the interior parts are polished to your satisfaction, start assembly of the gun by installing both extractors, together with their springs, in the slots provided for them in the bolt and pinning them in place. If the closed-bolt version is used, the firing pin and striker are installed on the bolt.

The barrel is inserted from the rear end and, with the indexing pin in alignment, pushed into place and secured by the barrel nut. The bolt is now inserted into the receiver and the cocking lever installed. With both the recoil spring and the striker spring in place, the recoil spring guide is installed, followed by the breech plug, which is held in place by the retaining pin.

The trigger group is assembled by first inserting the trigger block, with its return spring in place, into the lower receiver and pinning it in place. The trigger, with its trigger bar pinned in place, is put In place and pinned, making sure that the forward end of the trigger bar is under the projecting block at the top of the trigger block. If the two-stage trigger is used, the wire spring should be located and secured in place at this time. The trigger return spring is attached to the trigger bar, with its rear end stretched slightly to exert tension, and pinned in place at the rear of the lower receiver.

The seeur is now pinned in place as shown in the drawing. If only the closed-bolt version is used, the wire spring behind the trigger can be eliminated. The upper receiver is positioned in place on the lower and secured in place using the front mounting screw.

The grip is now positioned over the rear of the lower receiver and secured with the stock bolt, or grip screw, which also holds 51 Home Workshop Guns for Defense and Resistance both receivers together at the rear. The magazine release, together with its spring, is pinned in place, completing assembly of the gun. The closed-bolt gun can be tested for proper feeding with live ammunition, but the firing pin should be removed as a precaution against accidental firing. Don't neglect this; it can be dangerous. Once, I had a gun similar to this almost completed, except the firing pin had not been installed.

I was going to show a friend of mine just how slick this gun would feed. I placed five cartridges in the magazine and inserted it in the gun. When I pulled the bolt to the rear and released it to feed the first cartridge, it fired aU five rounds into the wall of my shop. Subsequent investigation revealed insufficient clearance between the bolt face and the cartridge head. This allowed the bolt to crush the priming mixture, firing the gun, without any firing pin whatsoever. Not only would the feds have claimed the gun was illegal, it was also dangerous and could have resulted in serious consequences.

The fixed firing pin in the open-bolt version prevents testing for feeding, but this can be done with the closed bolt in place. With a single round in the magazine, draw the bolt to the rear and let it move forward smartly. If the cartridge feeds satisfactorily, try it with several rounds, working the action by hand. If cartridges do not feed properly, try to determine the cause by allowing the bolt to move forward slowly and observing where the bullet nose contacts the approach cone of the barrel. If it hits at the bottom, the forward ends of the magazine lips should be sprung open slightly.

This will elevate the bullet nose in relation to the magazine body. If the bullet nose contacts the top of the barrel or the cartridge stands straight up, the magazine lips should be sprung inward, a little at a time, until the condition is corrected. Be advised that when the bolt strips a cartridge from the magcizine during normal firing, the bullet nose wiU try to move downward due to pressure being exerted against the upper rear of the cartridge case by forward movement of the bolt.

So it probably won't take as much adjustment to the magazine lips as slow hand feeding may indicate. When you are satisfied with the way the gun feeds during hand cycling, you are ready to test fire. If using the closed-bolt version, replace the firing pin assembly. One round of live ammunition should be loaded into the magazine. With the action cocked, hold the gun well away from your face and pull the trigger. If everything works the way it should, the round will fire, causing the bolt to move to the rear, extracting and ejecting the empty case.

The bolt should remain in the open position in the open-bolt version but should return forward in the closed-bolt. If it worked the way it was supposed to, try it with two cartridges, still as a semiautomatic. We will get to the full automatic part soon, but some of the parts should be hardened first to prevent undue wear or battering.

If the bolt didn't remain open open bolt , a little more fitting may be necessary. Try working the action by hand with the trigger depressed just far enough to release the bolt. The sear should catch and hold the bolt in its rearward position. If it does not, you may not have the trigger fitted or assembled correctly. Check it carefully. If the trigger mechanism is working properly, then either the bolt is too heavy or the recoil spring is too stiff.

In either instance, the breech block doesn't travel to the rear far enough for the sear to catch it. Try cutting one coil off the recoil spring and try it again, using one round as before. If it still doesn't remain open after firing, cut off emother coil and try again. Repeat a third time if necessary.

If it still doesn't work after cutting off a third coil, something else must be wrong, or else you 52 Volume ni. Try polishing the bolt and the inside of the receiver body to reduce friction. If it stiU doesn't work properly, turn the bolt to a slightly smaller diameter only. Take care not to weaken the spring or lighten the bolt so much that it will recoil far enough to the rear for the cocking lever to strike the end of its slot.

If the tape isn't torn by the cocking lever all the way to the end of the slot, it can be considered satisfactory. If it does, a slightly stronger spring is needed. When you are satisfied that you have it adjusted and working properly, try firing with two rounds in the magazine. The trigger must be released and pulled again to fire subsequent shots. Anything else is unacceptable and must be corrected. Assuming that it does work correctly, the gun should now be disassembled and the parts heat treated, as described in the next chapter.

After this is done, assemble the gun once more and test fire it thoroughly, first on semiautomatic fire, and then on full automatic. When testing as a full automatic, start by loading only two or three rounds in the mag- azine. This will prevent having a runaway gun if something should break or fail to work properly. It isn't my idea of fun to have a full-automatic weapon with a full magazine continue to fire after the trigger is released.

If it should, all you can do is hold onto it and hope it runs dry before you hit anybody. So test it thoroughly with only a few rounds in the magazine before stuffing it full. Suffice to say, several of the small parts described herein will require hardening.

Please note that all temperatures given are in Fahrenheit. I have a hard enough time even spelling it, let alone writing it repeatedly. In certain instances, this hardening process is required only to prevent wear and in others both to increase strength and prevent battering or other malformation. It will be necessary for you to heat the part to be hardened to a temperature above the critical stage forming Austenite , then rapidly cooling it by plunging it into a quenching bath consisting of oil, water, brine, etc.

The extremely hard steel is then heated once more to a temperature somewhere between and degrees and cooled forming either Troosite or Sorbite. The exact temperature required for this tempering or drawing operation varies considerably, depen- ding both on the carbon content of the steel and the strength and hardness requirements. A gas or electric furnace is almost a necessity for this type of heat treatment. If you anticipate treating many parts, I suggest you either buy a commercial furnace or build one.

A usable gas furnace can be built by simply lining a steel or iron shell with firebrick.

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A vacuum cleaner motor and fan can be used as a blower. A pyrometer is also necessary to measure and regulate the temperature. Don't depend on commercial heat treaters to treat your parts correctly. We have a loudmouth here in town who brags about his abilities and knowledge of heat treatment. Some time ago I let him talk me into having him heat treat 10 sets of shotgun parts. I asked that they be quenched at degrees and drawn at When I went back for the parts, he went through an elaborate line of nonsense about how he had packed the openings with steel wool and taken all sorts of precautions to prevent distortion and how much better these would be than any I had used before.

He also charged me about five times what the job was worth. I didn't complain; since I hadn't inquired as to the price, I felt it was my own fault. But when I test fired the guns, the bolts cracked. Luckily, I discovered this before they were all ruined. I managed to save three. But the ones that cracked simply shattered like glass when hit with a hammer. When I confronted the self-proclaimed expert with the ruined parts, he went into a lengthy spiel about how it wasn't his fault and finally refunded what he had charged me. I retempered the remaining parts and managed to 55 Home Workshop Guns for Defense and Resistance save them.

But it took several hours of machine work to replace the ruined ones. Since then, I have done my own work It is possible to harden and temper parts by using the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch, a forge, and, in some instances, a hot bath. The latter method can be either a chemical solution or molten metal. This method is especially well- suited to irregularly shaped parts, parts with holes, and parts varying in thickness or mass. These parts will heat uniformly to the desired temperature in such a bath.

There are times, however, when the only available method will be the torch. While this method is far from foolproof, satisfactory results Ccm be obtained if sufficient care is taken. In many cases you will not know the exact composition of your steel, so a bit of exper- imenting is in order before beginning. Since most of the medium- and high-carbon steels require heating to between and degrees for hardening, try heating the scrap to a bright, clear, glowing red, devoid of any yellow- ish tinge.

This is the "cherry red" so often mentioned in connection with heat-treating activities. When this color is reached, the material is plunged into a quenching bath of water or SAE 10 motor oil, which is at room temperature or slightly warmer. It should now be so hard, a file won't touch it. If it is not, try another scrap at a slightly higher temperature, and when the proper combination is found, apply it to the part to be hardened. Nearly all carbon steels change color in the same way and at almost the same temperatures.

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So the hardening and tempering colors that appear while heating will indicate the approx- imate temperatures of the metal. The chart at the end of this chapter gives a fairly broad color range and can be used as a guide. There is a product on the market called Tempilaq which can take some of the guesswork out of the temperature control. It is available from gunsmith supply houses and machine tool suppliers. In use, a thin coating is applied to the surface of the material to be heat treated.

Actually, only a thin smear is required. After it dries to a dull finish, begin heating the metal. The Tempilaq will melt sharply when the proper temperature is reached and should be quenched immediately. This product is available to indicate temperatures from to degrees and, except for expensive pyrometers, is the most accurate temperature indicator I have found.

Whatever type of temperature indicator is used, the hardened steel must be tempered, or drawn, after quenching. Either wipe on a smear of Tempilaq or heat the metal to the color indicating the temperature desired, then allow it to cool. It may be wise to again experiment with a hardened scrap of the same material before attempting to temper the actual part, and test it again with a file and punch.

Another method which could prove useful for drawing temperatures up to degrees is the use of the kitchen oven. Simply place the parts in the oven, set it to the desired temperature, and let them heat for 30 minutes to an hour. Still another method that works well on firing pins, sears, pins, and other small parts is the use of a hardening compound such as Kasenit. By heating the part to be hardened to a cherry red and coating it with the compound, usually done by burying the part in the compound, then reheating to the same cherry red and quenching in water, a hard surface will result while retaining a soft inner core.

This is similar to a case-hardening process, which I will not attempt to explain here since this process will give similar results with less equipment. The directions on the can should be followed exactly if this method is used, since different metals require different treatment. It may be helpful to include a brief break- down of the SAE numbers used in drawings and specifications to indicate a certain kind of steel.

We read about , , , etc. The first figure, as a general rule, indicates the class to which the steel belongs. Thus, 1 indicates a carbon steel, 2 a nickel steel, 3 nickel chromium, 4 molybdenum steel, 5 chromium steel, 6 chrome vanadium steel, etc. Usually, the last two or three figures indicate the average carbon content in hundredths of one percent, or "points. The following color chart may come in handy when tempering by the color method.

Brightly polish the part to be tempered so that the color will show and place it on a red-hot steel plate until it reaches the desired color, then remove it and allow it to cool. It should be remembered that the methods and descriptions in this chapter apply to carbon steels only. Certain alloy steels may require Surface hardening compounds such as Kasenit can be used to impart a hard surface to parts made of low carbon steel while retaining a soft core. Useful mainly on small parts.

Also remember that since I have no control over your attempts at heat treatment, I cannot accept any responsibility for problems you may encounter. This can be accomplished using power buffing wheels, which is considerably faster, or by hand polishing with files and abrasive cloth.

Files should be used to remove tool marks, dents, etc. Fairly coarse abrasive cloth is then applied, using strips of the cloth in a "shoeshine" fashion around the curved surfaces of the barrel, bolt, and receiver alike. Dents and low places will be revealed as this progresses. This cross polishing is followed by length- wise polishing whereby strips of the abrasive cloth are wrapped around files or blocks and moved lengthwise along the metal, parallel to the longitudinal axis, turning them slightly as the polishing progresses.

This is continued until the entire area has been gone over. Lateral depressions and circular tool marks will become apparent as this is done. This process is continued crosswise followed by lengthwise polishing until all dents, pits, depressions, and tool marks are removed.


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Finally, after carefully polishing with the finest grit available, polish all surfaces with the crocus cloth. Use the cloth in both directions, but finish with lengthwise strokes as you did with the coarser grades as described previously. Power polishing is done in the same manner. Begin by applying a coarse-grit abrasive compound to either felt or cloth wheels. This is followed by progressively finer grits until the desired degree of finish is reached.

Felt wheels should be used when polishing over screw or pin holes and on flat surfaces, especially where straight lines and sharp corners must be maintained. When using the power wheels, crosswise polishing should be avoided whenever possible. The parts should be held at an angle to the wheel and polished lengthwise whenever possible. When polished to your satisfaction, the parts should be examined in direct sunlight to ascertain that no scratches or polishing marks remain. Following this final check, the individual parts should be degreased.

While at least 50 percent of obtaining a good blue job depends on the quality of the polish, another 25 percent will depend on the parts being absolutely free of any trace of oil or grease. A number of degreasing compounds and detergents are available in grocery, paint, and hardware stores. Mix one of these with water and boil the parts in the solution for a few minutes.

After rinsing in clear water, they will be ready for the bluing process. After this, the parts should no longer be handled with bare 59 Home Workshop Guns for Defense and Resistance hands since the oil in the skin of your hands may contaminate them. From this point, use rubber gloves, metal hooks, or wires to handle them. In previous volumes I have given detailed descriptions, including formulas, for both nitrate bluing, or "blacking," and rust blue methods.

In this book I will try to describe a method sometimes referred to as "fume bluing" or "fuming. Along with a tank to boil the parts in plus a suitable heat source, it is necessary to have at least one, preferably two, plastic boxes, both as airtight as possible, to contain the parts while the actual fuming takes place. One box must be of sufficient size to accept the barreled receiver; the other needs only to be of adequate size to hold the remaining parts. You will also need a small quantity of both concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids, as well as several six to eight plastic cups to hold these acids.

With the parts degreased and rinsed, rubber plugs or corks are placed in each end of the barrel.